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Employment under Central Government – Group/Grade Pay wise Census – Part I of NC, JCM (Staff Side) of Memorandum submitted to 7th CPC

Part I Chapter II Employment under Central Government For other Part of NC, JCM (Staff Side) memorandum to 7th CPC Click here to view We

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Corrected version of Draft of JCM’s Memorandum to be submitted to 7th CPC
NC JCM Memorandum to 7th CPC on merger of DA with Pay and Interim Relief
Part I
Chapter II

Employment under Central Government

For other Part of NC, JCM (Staff Side) memorandum to 7th CPC Click here to view

memorandum+to+7th+cpc+by+nc+jcm+staff sideWe have relied upon two Governmental sources to prepare the requisite data needed to analyse the trend of growth or decline in the number of personnel employed by the Government of India. The Pay Research Unit, functioning under the Department of Expenditure has published the brochure carrying data up to the financial year 2011-12. The Director General, Employment and Training has published the Census of Central Government Employees which carries details upto the year 2008-2009 (31.3.2009). The tables appended to this chapter are sourced from the above mentioned Brochures.

2.2. Table 2-1 depicts the sanctioned and working strength group-wise , for a period covering 7 years from 2005-06 to 2011-12, whereas Table 2.2 indicates the position in 1995-96 and 2011-12. The sanctioned strength as in 1995-96 (for all groups together) which stood at 4215932 shrunk to 3684543 in 2011-12. The reduction effected through abolition of posts or whole scale conversion of Department in to PSUs was of the order of 531389 (12.6%). When it is viewed with reference to the working strength (men in position), the reduction was 808248 (20.7%). The difference between the sanctioned strength of 1995-96 and working strength of 2011-12 was as huge as 1131402. In other words, the government was functioning with almost 27% less man power, even though the man power requirement in the 16 years between 1995-96 to 2011-12 had enormously increased due to the expansion of Governmental activities both extensively and intensively. The canard that was spread throughout the period that the government had accumulated a lot of flab in the post independent era, unfortunately gathered momentum, which led the government to set up the Expenditure Commission, in the wake of 5th CPC wage revision. Not being satisfied with the speed of abolition of posts, Government issued an executive fiat in 2001, whereby two-third of all vacant posts was directed to be abolished in the name of Annual Direct Recruitment plan. The posts are normally created in government after a procrastinated inter-departmental study. The Cabinet has to give its assent for the proposal for creation of posts to materialise. In the process of implementation of the said executive fiat, which was in currency from 2001 to 2009 (nine years continuously), the posts created after such thorough deliberations and with the seal of approval from the highest political forum was simply ordered to be abolished arbitrarily. This created a void, which affected adversely the very functioning of some departments, making it necessary for the heads of organizations either to outsource the functions or contract it out or engage personnel on fixed time period contract basis, giving room for plethora of administrative problems. The efficacy, built assiduously over the years by the Departments was destroyed. The Citizens Charter prepared by these Departments, remained only as an ornamental piece on the walls of Government offices.
.3. Incidentally, it may be noted from Table 2.2 that there had been no reduction or abolition in Group A posts while the sanctioned strength of Group B (Gazetted) posts which, however, has no element of direct recruitment was reduced.
2.4 The illogical directive, conceived by the Department of Personnel as a means to speed up the process of pruning brought in its wake the undesirable practice of exploiting the job seekers. They were driven to the doors of unscrupulous contractors for pittance of wages. What we would like to bring to the notice of the Commission is that the existence of a large array of personnel employed by the Government through contractors and other methods in violation of the laws of the land, whose number is invisible in the statistical data, we have reproduced in this chapter. Though reprehensible, it is a fact that there had been a concerted effort on the part of the Government to push a major segment of the governmental functions into informal sector where employment need not be in consonance with the existing rules and regulations.
2.5 We fervently hope that the Commission will be able to collect the data of such informal employment by each department; data of the functions outsourced; and the expenditure incurred thereon to get a fair view of the number of persons actually employed by the Government of India in carrying out its day to day activities.
2.6 From the figures depicted in Table 2.3, it could be seen that Railways continue to be the biggest employer engaging the largest number of Government employees. As on 1.3.2012 Railways had on their rolls, 1305700 persons, of which 1288400 are Group C employees. Ministry of Home Affairs, under whom the para-military forces function, has taken the second position with 830276 persons employed as on 1.3.2012. They have pushed the Defence Ministry to third position. During the period between 1995-96 and 2011-12, unlike in many other organizations, there had been no abolition of posts in para-military services. In fact there had been a constant increase in their number. In the year 1995-96, the Ministry of Home Affairs had
5.7 lakh employees. As on 1.3.2012 it rose to 9.3 lakhs indicating the increasing concern of the security of Government establishments and installations.
2.7 Defence civilian employees number about 368594 with a percentage share of 11.95. Postal employees are 211107 (6.84%), Revenue 98787 (3.2%) and others 270066 (8.76%). These figures clearly indicate that large majority of Central Government employees (88%) are either industrial or operational staff. Hardly 10% constitute the administrative, technical, professional and clerical staff. Vast majority of the employees is deployed in those organizations providing goods and services. The general impression that the wage bill of Central Government is for administrative purposes is, therefore, ill-conceived.
2.8. As per Table No.2.4. of the total number of regular employees as on 31.3.2009 (for which the figures are available) the number of woman employees were 311002, i.e., 10.04%. Railways have 28.66% with reference to total woman employees and just 6.43% with reference to railway workers. The respective figures for Communication Ministry are 11.10 and 15.78 for Defence civilians, 12.66 and 10.79 and in the case of others 47.58 and 13.11.
2.9. The largest number (25.89 i. e. 802194 persons) of employees as on 31.3.2009 was in the
Grade Pay bracket of 2400 and   2800.   Location-wise, largest concentration of Central Government employees was in Delhi, i.e., 203051 (6.55%) due to the fact that all Central Ministry headquarters are located at Delhi.
2.10. Table No. 2.7 reveals the declining trend of regular employment in Central Government. In 1990, as per the census of Central Government Employees prepared by Director General of Employment and Training (DGET) the number of regular employees was 37.74 lakhs which got reduced to 30.99 lakhs in 2009 (Figures are available up-to 2009). The index (Base Year 1971 = 100) has come down from 141.27 (in 1991) to 114.82 (in 2009). The DGET has highlighted the following indicators that emerged from the census:
(1). As per the result of Census Enquiries, the total regular employment under Central Government as on 31st March, 2009 was 30.99 lakh as against 31.12 lakh on 31st March, 2008. The employment has, thus, recorded a decline of 0.42% in 2009 over 2008.
(2).Employment in Ministry of Railways was the highest (44.74%) followed by the Ministry of Home Affairs (24.14%), Defence civilian (11.77%), Communications & IT (7.06%) and Finance (3.49%). Other Ministries/Departments collectively shared the rest of 9% of the total Central Government regular employment.
(3).Out of 30.99 lakh regular employees, 3.11 lakh were women. The proportion of women in the total employment is almost static, around 10% in the year 2009, 2008 and 2006.
(4).About 95% of regular Central Government employees were Non-Gazetted. The overall ratio of Gazetted to Non-Gazetted employees was 1:19. In the case of Ministry of Railways, however, this ratio was 1:114.
(5) Amongst regular Central Government employees, 63% were holding Group-‘C’ posts and 26% were in Group-‘D’ posts. About 8% were holding Group-‘B’ posts whereas employees holding Group –‘A’ posts were only about 3%.
(6).About 90% of regular Central Government employees were found in the Grade pay of Rs. Up to 1800 to Rs. 5400 which mainly consists of Group ‘B’, Group ‘C’ and Group ‘D’ posts. Only 0.16% employees were in the highest scale i.e. HAG + Apex & Cabinet Secretary level.
(7).Amongst regular Central Government employees, 18% were working at offices located in ‘X’ class cities and 29% in ‘Y’ class cities. The percentage of employees in all the cities/areas other than class X and Y cities was 53%.
(8).Amongst States and Union Territory Administrations, the highest number of regular Central Government employees was in the State of Uttar Pradesh (9.51%) followed by Maharashtra (9.06%), West Bengal (8.54%), Delhi (6.55%), Andhra Pradesh (5.97%), Tamil Nadu (4.79%) and Madhya Pradesh (4.07%). In remaining States/U.Ts the proportion was less than 4%.
2.11. In the chapter dealing with the State of Economy of the country, we have given a Table (3.4) indicating the declining trend in the percentage share of wages and allowances with reference to both revenue receipts and expenditure. The 3rd CPC has gone on record to state that a fall in the percentage share of wages and allowances against the revenue receipts/expenditure will provide the requisite leeway for the Government without placing any undue strain on the exchequer. One of the oft-repeated contention is that increase in the wages of government employees would generate demand-pull inflation, which ultimately reduce their purchasing power to the levels before the said revision. This is not only fallacious but mischievous too. As observed by the National Commission on Labour (in the context of grant of Dearness Allowance) the inflationary pressure due to wage increase is extremely insignificant. With every organized sector of the economy securing benefits through collective bargaining it is unethical to single out the government employees and that too on an untested hypothesis of demand pull inflation. In fact as mentioned elsewhere in this memorandum, the central government employees had been bearing the brunt of the consequences of inflation. When the avowed objective of public policy is to expand employment opportunities and raise the level of productivity, protection of existing real wages and normal rates of growth of such wages cannot be portrayed by any stretch of imagination, as anti-development.

Table 2.1

Gr.A
Year Number of sanctioned posts Number of incumbents in position Number of vacant posts Percentage of vacant posts to total sanctioned posts in the group
2005-06 91414 79005 12409 13.57
2006-07 91750 78987 12763 13.91
2007-08 93360 79469 13891 14.88
2008-09 93616 80663 12953 13.84
2009-10 96504 82926 13578 14.07
2010-11 98977 84474 14503 14.65
2011-12 100869 87960 12909 12.80
B(G)

Year Number of sanctioned Posts Number of incumbents in position Number of vacant posts Percentage of vacant posts to total sanctioned posts in the group
2005-06 87038 80150 6888 7.91
2006-07 83147 76093 7054 8.48
2007-08 81701 74177 7524 9.21
2008-09 88890 79446 9444 10.62
2009-10 91307 80405 10902 11.94
2010-11 86657 76479 10178 11.75
2011-12 86840 76724 10116 11.65
B (NG)
Year Number of sanctioned Posts B(NG) Number of incumbents in position Number of vacant posts Percentage of vacant posts to total sanctioned posts in the group
2005-06 71960 60086 11874 16.50
2006-07 73253 62500 10753 14.68
2007-08 73906 60833 13073 17.69
2008-09 102075 78626 23449 22.97
2009-10 115086 95483 19603 17.03
2010-11 142098 116249 25849 18.19
2011-12 144454 113477 30977 21.44
C(NG)

Year Number of sanctioned posts Number of incumbents in position Number of vacant posts Percentage of vacant posts to total sanctioned posts in the group
2005-06 2343081 2071299 271782 11.60
2006-07 2343359 2075497 267862 11.43
2007-08 2346621 2091793 254828 10.86
2008-09 2337494 2094655 242839 10.39
2009-10 3299398 2809545 489853 14.85
2010-11 3335797 2804736 531061 15.92
2011-12 3352380 2806369 546011 16.29
Gr.D

Year Number of sanctioned posts Number of incumbents in position Number of vacant posts Percentage of vacant posts to total sanctioned posts in the group
2005-06 932985 818445 114540 12.28
2006-07 955024 816193 138831 14.54
2007-08 966600 810560 156040 16.14
2008-09 942208 773953 168255 17.86
Unclassified

Year Number of sanctioned posts Number of incumbents in position Number of vacant posts Percentage of vacant posts to total sanctioned posts in the group
2005-06 291 289 2 0.69
2006-07 4 4 0 0


Table 2.2.
Statement showing sanctioned and working strength Group-wise in 1995-96 and 2011-12 of civilian employees of the Government of India. (including para- military force personnel)


Group A

Year Sanctioned Strength Working Strength Vacant Posts %of Vacant Posts
1995-96 89262 76891 12371 13.86
2011-12 100869 87960 12909 12.80
Group B(G)

Year Sanctioned Strength Working Strength Vacant Posts %of Vacant Posts
1995-96 95652 86694 8958 9.77
2011-12 86840 76724 10116 11.65
Group B(NG)

Year Sanctioned Strength Working Strength Vacant Posts %of Vacant Posts
1995-96 93166 87203 7963 8.55
2011-12 144454 113477 30977 21.44
Group C

Year Sanctioned Strength Working Strength Vacant Posts %of Vacant Posts
1995-96 2674836 2476146 198690 7.42
2011-12 3352380 2806369 546011 16.29
Group D

Year Sanctioned Strength Working Strength Vacant Posts %of Vacant Posts
1995-96 1237682 1142788 94894 7.66
2011-12 0 0 0 0
Unclassified

Year Sanctioned Strength Working Strength Vacant Posts %of Vacant Posts
1995-96 25334 23056 2278 9.38
2011-12 0 0 0 0
Total

Year Sanctioned Strength Working Strength Vacant Posts %of Posts Vacant
1995-96 4215932 3892778 325154 7.71
2011-12 3684543 3084530* 600013 16.28
Reduction 531389 808248 (-)274859
12.6% w.r.to s/s/95-96 20.7%w.r.to w/w of 95-96
*The difference between the sanctioned strength of 1995-96 and the men in position in 2011-12 is 1131402, which works out to 26.83% with reference to the S/S of 1995-96
Source: Brochure on Pay and allowance of Central Government Civilian Employees 2011-12 and 1995-96.
Note: During the period between 1995-96 and 2011-12 (16 years) the total number of posts abolished in all categories works out to 531389 which is 12.6% of the SS of 1995-96 and the vacancy position rose from 325154 to 600013 i.e. from 7.71% to 16.28%. The brunt of the reduction had been borne by Group B Non-gazetted and Group D.

Table 2.3



GROUP WISE & STATUS-WISE NUMBER OF CENTRAL GOVT. CIVILIAN REGULAR EMPLOYEES AS ON 1.3.2012. IN MAJOR MINISTRIES/ DEPARTMENTS

A* B(G) B(NG) C Total
1 Railways
S/S 8748 7652 0 1560388 1576788
Percentage 8.67 8.81 0 46.55 42.8
W/S 9228 8072 0 1288400 1305700
Percentage 10.49 10.52 0 45.91 42.33
2 Home Affairs
S/S 18953 2390 42776 864815 928934
Percentage 18.79 2.75 29.61 25.8 25.21
W/S 14817 1763 32921 780775 830276
Percentage 16.85 2.3 29.01 27.82 26.92
3 Diffence(Civilian)
S/S 13773 12213 14518 443233 483737
Percentage 13.65 14.07 10.05 13.22 13.13
W/S 13185 11847 11174 332328 368594
Percentage 14.99 15.44 9.85 11.84 11.95
4 Posts
S/S 610 1155 5639 203703 211107
Percentage 0.61 1.33 3.9 6.08 5.73
W/S 610 1155 5639 203703 211107
Percentage 0.69 1.51 4.97 7.26 6.84
5 Revenue
S/S 8255 24144 31355 74569 138323
Percentage 8.18 27.8 21.71 2.22 3.75
W/S 5881 20885 23353 48668 98787
Percentage 6.69 27.22 20.58 9.74 3.2
6 Others
S/S 50530 39286 50166 205672 345654
Percentage 50.1 45.24 34.73 6.13 9.38
W/S 44239 33002 40390 152435 270066
Percentage 50.29 43.01 35.59 5.43 8.76
S/S total 100869 86840 144454 3352380 3684543
W/S Total 87960 76724 113477 2806369 3084530

* includes some non gazetted posts also.

Source. Page No. 25 of Brochure on Pay and Allowances of Central Govt. Civilian employees 2011-12 (Brochure-34)
by Pay Research Unit Department of Expenditure Ministry of Finance New Delhi

S.No. Ministry Women employment as on 31st March, 2009
Number percentage share to the Total regular employees in the respective organization. Percentage share to the total women employees in Central Government.
1 2 3 4 5
1. Communication & IT 34525(of218788) 15.78 11.10
2. Railways 89128(1386123) 6.43 28.66
3. Defence (Civilian) 39353(364718) 10.79 12.66
4. Others 147996(1128878) 13.11 47.58
Total 311002(3098507) 10.04 100

Source: Table: 3 . Page 5. Census of Central Government Employees: DGET

Table 2.5
Estimated distribution of regular central government employees according to various grade pay:

As on 31st March 2009
Grade Pay in Rs. No.
Of
employees
Percentage
to total
Upto Rs. 1800 792677 25.58
Rs. 1900 and Rs. 2000 544426 17.57
Rs. 2400 and Rs .2800 802194 25.89
Rs., 4200, 4600 Rs. 4800 731877 23.62
Rs. 5400 84266 2.72
Rs. 6600 and Rs. 7600 71500 2.31
Rs. 8700 and Rs. 8900 39286 1.27
Rs. 10,000 Rs.12000 27323 0.88
HAG + Apex and Cabinet Secretary 4958 0.16
total 3098507 100.00

Source: Table: 7 . Page 10. Census of Central Government Employees: DGET

Table 2.6
Location wise Dispersal of employees in different class of cities

Employment in 2009
Class/ City Number % to total
“X”class Cities
Bangalore(UA) 31565 1.02
Chennai(UA) 68392 2.21
Delhi(UA) 203051 6.55
Greater Mumbai(UA) 101389 3.27
Hyderabad(UA) 60461 2.92
“Y”Class Cities 895570 28.90
All the Cities / Area other than Class X and Class Y Cities 1647646 53.18
Total 3098507 100.00

Source: Table: 8 . Page 11. Census of Central Government Employees: DGET

Table 2.7
Trend in Central Government regular employment during 1990-2009

Central Govt. employment(regular)
As on 31st March Number (in lakh) % increase/ decrease  over
previous
available year
Index of
employment (Base
100 in 1971)
1990 37.74 0.69 139.8
1991 83.13 1.03 141.27
1992-94
1995 39.82 4.43 147.54
1996-2000
2001 38.76 (-)2.66 143.61
2002-2003
2004 31.64 (-)18.37 117.23
2005
2006 31.16 (-) 1.53 115.45
2007
2008 31.12 (-) 0.13 115.30
2009 30.99 (-) 0.42 114.82

Data not available

Source: Table: 10 . Page 14. Census of Central Government Employees: DGET

Table 2.8
Statement showing Sanctioned Posts and Men in position department-wise

Year Railway Defence P&T Other
Deptts.
Home
Affairs
Total
Sanctioned
strength
Total
Men in
Position
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1995-96 17.1
15.9
5.9
5.1
7.5
7.2
6.0
5.4
5.7
5.4
4217932 3892778
1996-97 17.0
15.0
5.9
5.1
7.5
7.3
6.1
5.5
5.9
5.4
4218194 3894948
1997-98 15.6
14.5
5.8
5.0
8.6
7.9
6.0
5.3
5.9
5.7
4192735 3847049
1998-99 15.1
14.0
5.8
5.0
7.7
7.1
6.0
5.3
6.0
5.7
4067049 3729274
1999-00 16.8
15.8
5.8
5.0
7.7
7.1
5.3
4.7
6.1
5.8
4172031 3855316
2000-01 15.6
15.5
5.8
5.0
3.0
2.8
5.2
4.7
6.4
6.1
3606482 3426018
2001-02 16.3
15.1
4.7
3.5
2.9
2.7
5.1
4.5
7.3
6.9
3633006 3289849
2002-03 16.3
14.8
4.7
3.5
2.8
2.6
5.1
4.5
7.3
6.9
3620183 3236503
2003-04 16.2
14.5
4.7
3.5
2.3
1.9
5.2
4.5
7.2
6.9
3560433 3128134
2004-05 16.0
14.3
4.7
3.5
2.3
1.9
5.1
4.4
7.5
6.8
3559831 3088009
2005-06 15.8
14.1
4.7
3.6
2.3
2.3
4.8
4.1
7.5
6.9
3526769 3109274
2006-07 15.7
14.1
4.8
3.6
2.2
2.2
4.9
4.2
7.7
7.0
3546537 3109274
2007-08 15.7
13.9
4.8
3.6
2.2
2.1
4.9
4.0
8.0
7.4
3562188 3116832
2008-09 15.8
13.8
4.8
3.6
2.2
2.2
4.8
3.9
8.1
7.5
3564283 3107343
2009-10 15.8
13.6
4.8
3.6
2.1
2.1
4.8
3.8
8.6
7.6
3602295 3068359
2010-11 15.8
13.3
4.9
3.8
2.1
2.1
4.8
3.7
9.1
8.0
3663529 3081938
2011-12 15.8
13.1
4.8
3.7
2.1
2.1
4.8
3.7
9.3
8.3
3684543 3084530

Figures in columns 2 to 6 are in lakhs rounded to one decimal point and actual figures given in Column 7 & 8 representing total figures..Figures given in second line represent men in position in each year.

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